December 2004 (revised July 2011)
About this publication
The Interfaith Coalition on Energy has examined thousands of buildings belonging to religious congregations. Some of them are new or recently renovated, and from these, we have learned many helpful ideas for those beginning the construction or renovation process. This publication has several parts:
- Part A discusses planning ahead to avoid mistakes
- Part B is a narrative of several specific aspects of energy systems
- Part C is a checklist
- Part D is a list of questions to ask design professionals
Our thanks to the now defunct Nonprofit Energy Savings Investment Program for some of the following information. We also included some information from our article in the October 1988 issue of Construction Specifier magazine.
Part A. Planning ahead to avoid mistakes
Congregations that serve their communities can feel compromised by owning and operating facilities that demand high payments for electricity and fuel. More dollars for energy mean fewer dollars for service.
Many lessons can be learned from older religious buildings. The annual energy cost per square foot of floor area is less in older buildings than in newer ones, mostly because the energy systems in newer buildings require more electricity for air conditioning. Very old buildings come from the era before natural gas, fuel oil and even electricity. They usually have large steam boilers, natural lighting and natural ventilation. Newer religious buildings have less mass, less natural structural material, hot water heating, air conditioning and mechanical ventilation.
If a congregation must construct a new building or expand an older one, it is least expensive to plan for a building that uses very little electricity and fuel. Plans are relatively easy to change. After construction contracts are let, however, changes can become very expensive change orders. And after the building is built, changes are even more expensive. The following are some of the mistakes congregations can make in planning for a new building or major renovation:
- Not adapting existing facilities to expanded use, to avoid construction and renovation altogether
- Not considering that electricity and fossil fuel costs will increase substantially over the life of new facilities
- Paying more attention to the purchase cost and less to the cost of ownership
- Oversight of construction falling on too few individuals
- Design professionals not working as a team
Trends in construction
- Fossil fuel costs may go up and down temporarily, but they will inevitably increase, at increasing rates.
- Tight and humid buildings are more likely to have problems with mold and mildew.
- Growing Asian economies and wars in which the US is involved can increase the cost and decrease the availability of building materials.
- Control systems are becoming more complicated with digital components, wireless communication and user-unfriendly interfaces.
The building as a system
When a congregation views their new project as an integrated system, the cost of ownership will be less. For example:
- Efficient lighting reduces the size of air conditioning equipment because lower wattage lamps and ballasts produce less heat during the cooling season.
- Increasing the insulation level and the quality of windows reduces the initial size and lifetime energy use of both heating and air conditioning equipment.
Energy Codes and Standards
Almost all new religious buildings will have to comply with mandatory life/safety codes. Other codes may apply in different states, municipalities and counties. In recent years, codes and standards have been greatly improved. Here are some of the more relevant ones:
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This Entire Article is 25 pages long.
NOTE: To read the Full 25 page Printable PDF Version please click on the link below
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